Аппенцелльская коза, была выведена в в течение многих поколений в швейцарских кантонах Аппенцель и Санкт-Галлен, и является родственной, более широко известной Зааненской молочной породе коз. Как и Зааненских, Аппенцелльских коз держат в основном для получения молока. Их количество уменьшалось в течение нескольких десятилетий, но в последние годы, их численность стала постепенно восстанавливаться и тем не менее, эти козы по-прежнему, в первую очередь, являются местной породой, аборигенной для местных кантонов.
Внешний вид, коз породы Аппенцелльская -
это чисто белая коза с шерстью средней длины. Она имеет крепкое,
гармонично сложенное тело. Конечности мощные и хорошо расположены. Тело
несколько шире, чем у Зааненских коз и, следовательно, несколько меньше.
Аппенцелльские козы комолые, то есть безрогие. Рост Аппенцелльских
козлов от 75 до 85 см, а Аппенцелльских коз от 70 до 80 см. Козлы, в
среднем, весят - 65 кг, а козы - 45 кг.
Аппенцелльские козы за период лактации в 270 дней, дают от 700 до 800 литров молока, жирностью - 2,9%, и белком - 2,7%. Надои, как известно, очень сильно зависят от ухода и кормления.
History: The Appenzell Goat has been bred for many generations in the Swiss cantons of Appenzell and St. Gallen, and is a relative of the more widely known Saanen dairy breed. Like their cousins from the valley, Appenzell goats are bred and kept primarily for milk production. Their numbers declined for several decades, but have grown in recent years; nonetheless, these goats are still primarily a local breed found in their native cantons.
Appenzell does who are well cared for and receive optimum nutrition can
be expected to reliably produce at least 1 gallon of milk per day while
in milk. They are happy foragers, but as a production breed they do
require extra mineral and vitamin supplementation. Fertility rates are
good, although multiples are not common; does are feminine and generally
make good mothers. Production life of a milking doe can be as long as 10
years, although milk production declines with age, and multiple kiddings
to freshen the doe will decrease longevity.
Current Uses: Milk production; ~270 days lactation, 2.9% butterfat, 2.7% protein, 1540 – 1760 lbs. (700 – 800 kg)
Appearance: Appenzell Goats are typically white with medium length hair and no horns. They are medium-to-large goats with strong, well-built bodies and sturdy limbs. A straight nose, long and erect ears, and a large, well-attached udder on does typifies the Appenzell goat. Does and bucks alike may have goatees, and both usually have wattles. Does typically weigh 120 lbs (45 kg) or more, while bucks may weigh in excess of 150 lbs. (65 kg). Horns are naturally polled.
Average weight: 120 - 150 lbs.
Lifespan: 12 - 16 years
Grooming: Like other domesticated pets, goats must be groomed for optimum health and comfort. Their hooves must be trimmed, preferably by an experienced hoof trimmer to minimize stress to the goat and avoid injury to both the goat and the trimmer. Goats are usually bathed and clipped in the summer or before a show. Clipping, which is best done by a professional, gives the goat a clean and tidy appearance. Bathing must be done with lukewarm water and a mild soap, followed by a quick drying with an absorbent towel, hair dryer, or exposure to the sun to prevent chills. A veterinarian should be consulted about de-lousing applications especially in the winter.
Diet: The ideal food for domesticated goats is alfalfa hay and grass hay. This should be available daily in quantities of at least 3% of the goat’s body weight. Small quantities of feed grain and concentrates (often protein-enriched) like goat show or goat grain can also be given to add nutrition. Supplements are often used to address deficiencies inherent to local habitats.
Clean water is essential to a goat’s daily diet. It should always be
available and provided where it cannot be soiled. Dirty and moldy water
is hazardous to the goat’s health. Milking goats should be kept away
from aromatic or strong-tasting foliage like garlic, onions, mint, and
cabbage, which could taint the flavor of the milk.
Housing: As herd animals, goats are best kept in pairs or groups. As grazers, they require an outdoor habitat that is securely fenced to prevent escape or foraging in restricted areas. The area should be large enough to allow the goat to roam. The recommended habitat per goat is 200 sq. ft. of yard or pasture plus a sheltered or indoor area of about 15 sq. ft. The sheltered area should be adequately built to keep the goats safe from rain and strong winds.
Keeping goats inside the house is not recommended because of the pet’s tendency to gnaw and chew on furniture and furnishings. Goats are also not known to adhere to toilet training.
Health issues: When kept for milk production, be particularly aware of potential mineral deficiencies, especially magnesium and selenium. Milking does should also be treated properly and their teats sterilized after each milking to prevent mastitis.
Goats are sensitive animals that can suffer from various infectious and
chronic diseases that are sometimes undetected until too late.
Vaccinations, as well as de-worming and de-lousing applications must be
conducted as needed. Milking goats should be checked regularly using
prescribed mastitis tests for udder health. Milking areas should always
be clean and the goat’s teats treated with teat dip after milking to
Goats must be inspected frequently to detect any signs of poor health, infections, or other ailments. Signs include cloudy or teary eyes, dull or fluffed up coat, droopy tail, hunched back, or poor appetite. A veterinarian should always be on call to address health concerns.
Behavior / Temperament / Activity level: Goats are inherently curious,
active, intelligent, and social. They are known to have the ability to
overcome enclosures by unraveling the gate, climbing over the mesh, or
pushing and ramming the fence down. Goats have good coordination and
balance and can manage to climb low trees, ledges, and overhangs. Their
curiosity leads them to constantly investigate items with their mouths;
most items get chewed and swallowed. With a little patience, goats can
be taught to carry or pull loads, respond to calls, and lead a herd. As
social animals, they easily get along with other farm animals.
Like their fellow Swiss cousins, Appenzell goats have rather mellow dispositions. They can be frisky and playful as youngsters, but with maturity these goats tend to settle down and become remarkably mellow. Does and wethers could potentially be kept as pets, but in any case they are an excellent milking breed with many similar qualities of the Saanen in a slightly smaller package.